The appearance of the cabbage head has been given importance in selective breeding, with varieties being chosen for shape, color, firmness and other physical characteristics. scientific name of cabbage is Brassica oleracea var. Cabbage family, Brassicaceae or Cruciferae, also known as the crucifers, or the mustard family is a family of flowering plants (Angiospermae). as its synonym. They are harvested by cutting the stalk just below the bottom leaves with a blade. Self-pollination is impossible, and plants are cross-pollinated by insects. The Cabbage family name was found in the USA, the UK, Canada, and Scotland between 1840 and 1920. Rhizoctonia solani causes the post-emergence disease wirestem, resulting in killed seedlings ("damping-off"), root rot or stunted growth and smaller heads. , Cabbages sold for market are generally smaller, and different varieties are used for those sold immediately upon harvest and those stored before sale. Preference for leaves, terminal bud, lateral bud, stem, and inflorescence resulted in selection of varieties of wild cabbage into the many forms known today. The cooling properties of the leaves were used in Britain as a treatment for trench foot in World War I, and as compresses for ulcers and breast abscesses. Bitter taste receptors in the TS2R family are also found in gut mucosal and pancreatic cells in humans and rodents. , Cabbage consumption varies widely around the world: Russia has the highest annual per capita consumption at 20 kg (44 lb), followed by Belgium at 4.7 kg (10 lb 6 oz) and the Netherlands at 4.0 kg (8 lb 13 oz). When people think of chocolate, they usually think of the sweet shop and high calorie chocolate bars. The first leaves produced are ovate (egg-shaped) with a lobed petiole.  The cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) is infamous in North America for its voracious appetite and for producing frass that contaminates plants.  Through the centuries, "cabbage" and its derivatives have been used as slang for numerous items, occupations and activities. These include cabbage bark or cabbage tree (a member of the genus Andira) and cabbage palms, which include several genera of palms such as Mauritia, Roystonea oleracea, Acrocomia and Euterpe oenocarpus. , The original family name of brassicas was Cruciferae, which derived from the flower petal pattern thought by medieval Europeans to resemble a crucifix. Leaves vary in color, from the common light yellowish green to dark green and dark red. It looks a bit like a cross between romaine lettuce and pale Swiss chard. This was about 40% of all the recorded Cabbage's in the USA. Revised continuously. Leave a reply. It was first observed in North America in 1854, in Illinois, but had spread to Florida and the Rocky Mountains by 1883, and was reported from British Columbia by 1905.  Closer spacing reduces the resources available to each plant (especially the amount of light) and increases the time taken to reach maturity. gemmifera); and Savoy cabbage (var. Turini TA, Daugovish O, Koike ST, Natwick ET, Ploeg A, Dara SK, Fennimore SA, Joseph S, LeStrange M, Smith R, Subbarao KV, Westerdahl BB. Members of the cabbage (brassica) family, e.g., broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, radish. Around the fifth century BC, the formation of what is now known as kale had developed. Post Russo-Japanese war, the Japanese soldiers took back home the Chinese cabbage and gradually it became popular all over the world. Cabbage was most likely domesticated somewhere in Europe before 1000 BC, although savoys were not developed until the 16th century AD. The preference for the eating of the leaves led to the selection of plants with larger leaves being harvested and their seeds planted for the next growth. Americans consume 3.9 kg (8.6 lb) annually per capita. Cabbage is a dense, leafy vegetable that grows biennially in cool climates. , When being grown for seed, cabbages must be isolated from other B. oleracea subspecies, including the wild varieties, by 0.8 to 1.6 km (1⁄2 to 1 mi) to prevent cross-pollination. gemmifera); and Savoy cabbage (var.  According to Pliny, the Pompeii cabbage, which could not stand cold, is "taller, and has a thick stock near the root, but grows thicker between the leaves, these being scantier and narrower, but their tenderness is a valuable quality". It is native to Coastal Southern and Western Europe. Cabbage is prone to several nutrient deficiencies, as well as to multiple pests, and bacterial and fungal diseases.  The caterpillar stage of the "small cabbage white butterfly" (Pieris rapae), commonly known in the United States as the "imported cabbage worm", is a major cabbage pest in most countries. , Chrysippus of Cnidos wrote a treatise on cabbage, which Pliny knew, but it has not survived. "Cabbage plants" are mentioned by A. Leo Oppenheim. Cabbage heads are generally picked during the first year of the plant's life cycle, but plants intended for seed are allowed to grow a second year and must be kept separate from other cole crops to prevent cross-pollination. Vegetables in the brassica family, such as collard greens, kale, broccoli, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts, contain glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, which resemble PROP, and therefore much of the perceived "bitterness" of these vegetables is mediated through TAS2R38. The most Cabbage families were found in the USA in 1920. . – mustard P Brassica oleracea is a plant species that includes many common foods as cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, Savoy cabbage, kohlrabi, and gai lan. The leaves are fleshier and thicker than other Brassica species—an adaptation that helps it store water and nutrients in its difficult growing environment. Leaves are densely packed, and as it grows, close and develop into a gigantic bud of head. Under conditions of long sunny days, such as those found at high northern latitudes in summer, cabbages can grow quite large. 7 Replies. The disease is caused by bacteria which enter natural opening at the leaf margin when water is forced out at night and drawn back in the day. By the Middle Ages, cabbage had become a prominent part of European cuisine. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea or B. oleracea var.  The word brassica derives from bresic, a Celtic word for cabbage. The common name of this plant in Spanish is Repollo rojo. botrytis); Brussels sprouts (var. It was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans; Cato and Elder praised this vegetable for its medicinal properties. , One of the most common bacterial diseases to affect cabbage is black rot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris, which causes chlorotic and necrotic lesions that start at the leaf margins, and wilting of plants. , Cabbage seedlings have a thin taproot and cordate (heart-shaped) cotyledons.  French naturalist Jean Ruel made what is considered the first explicit mention of head cabbage in his 1536 botanical treatise De Natura Stirpium, referring to it as capucos coles ("head-coles"). They do not produce heads and feature purple or green outer leaves surrounding an inner grouping of smaller leaves in white, red, or pink. Brush. Their woody stalks are sometimes dried and made into walking sticks. December 3, 2020. cabbage palm scientific name Back to genus Brassica; Plantopedia: Browse flowering plants by Scientific Name, Common Name, Genus, Family, USDA Hardiness Zone or Origin; Photo Gallery These develop when cabbage is overcooked and hydrogen sulfide gas is produced..  In India, cabbage was one of several vegetable crops introduced by colonizing traders from Portugal, who established trade routes from the 14th to 17th centuries. Ornamental cabbage typ… , Cabbage has been linked to outbreaks of some food-borne illnesses, including Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum. The simplest options include eating the vegetable raw or steaming it, though many cuisines pickle, stew, sautée or braise cabbage.  Some varieties of cabbage have been developed for ornamental use; these are generally called "flowering cabbage". Distribution. Preference led to further artificial selection of kale plants with more tightly bunched leaves, or terminal bud. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN).  When round-headed cabbages appeared in 14th-century England they were called cabaches and caboches, words drawn from Old French and applied at first to refer to the ball of unopened leaves, the contemporaneous recipe that commences "Take cabbages and quarter them, and seethe them in good broth", also suggests the tightly headed cabbage. Each flower has four petals set in a perpendicular pattern, as well as four sepals, six stamens, and a superior ovary that is two-celled and contains a single stigma and style. In its uncultivated form, it is called wild cabbage, and is native to coastal southern and western Europe. Repolyo (Cabbage) – Scientific name: Brassica oleracea Linn. When stored under less ideal conditions, cabbage can still last up to four months. Excessive consumption of cabbage may lead to increased intestinal gas which causes bloating and flatulence due to the trisaccharide raffinose, which the human small intestine cannot digest, but is digested by bacteria in the large intestine. Necrotic spot is where there are oval sunken spots a few millimeters across that are often grouped around the midrib. Different varieties prefer different soil types, ranging from lighter sand to heavier clay, but all prefer fertile ground with a pH between 6.0 and 6.8. White, also called Dutch – Smooth, pale green leaves, This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 10:48.  There are several physiological disorders that can affect the postharvest appearance of cabbage. Plants are 40–60 cm (16–24 in) tall in their first year at the mature vegetative stage, and 1.5–2.0 m (4 ft 11 in–6 ft 7 in) tall when flowering in the second year. By the 18th century, it was commonly planted by both colonists and native American Indians. Chinese cabbage, either of two widely cultivated members of the mustard family (Brassicaceae) that are varieties of Brassica rapa.  During the 16th century, German gardeners developed the savoy cabbage.  Studies on cruciferous vegetables, including cabbage, include whether they may lower the risk against colon cancer.  Cabbage seeds traveled to Australia in 1788 with the First Fleet, and were planted the same year on Norfolk Island. The outer leaves are trimmed, and any diseased, damaged, or necrotic leaves are removed. It may come as a surprise that chocolate was originally used as a medicine and is still being used as a medicine today.  During the 17th and 18th centuries, cabbage was a food staple in such countries as Germany, England, Ireland and Russia, and pickled cabbage was frequently eaten.  These "tree cabbages" yield fresh leaves throughout the year, are perennial, and do not need to be destroyed at harvest as with a normal cabbage. , The TAS2R38 gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor that functions as a taste receptor, mediated by ligands such as PROP and phenylthiocarbamide that bind to the receptor and initiate signaling that confers various degrees of taste perception. Seedlings are destroyed by the caterpillars. It is an edible plant of the Family Brassicaceae (or Cruciferae).  He reports the antipathy of the cabbage and the grape vine, for the ancients believed cabbages grown near grapes would impart their flavour to the wine. By selecting for fatter stems, the variant plant known as, European preference emerged for eating immature buds, selection for, Further selection in Belgium in lateral bud led to, This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 21:30. Symptoms & Life Cycle. World production of cabbage and other brassicas for 2018 was 69 million tonnes, with China accounting for 48% of the total.  Scientific research into the genetic modification of B. oleracea crops, including cabbage, has included European Union and United States explorations of greater insect and herbicide resistance. They can be prepared many different ways for eating; they can be pickled, fermented (for dishes such as sauerkraut), steamed, stewed, sautéed, braised, or eaten raw.  Bean curd and cabbage is a staple of Chinese cooking, while the British dish bubble and squeak is made primarily with leftover potato and boiled cabbage and eaten with cold meat. It has a lovely mild flavor with a peppery kick that is delicious in salads or stir-frys. Family: Brassicaceae ⁄ Cruciferae – Mustard family Genus: Brassica L. – mustard Species: Brassica oleracea L. – cabbage  Both mashed cabbage and cabbage juice have been used in poultices to remove boils and treat warts, pneumonia, appendicitis, and ulcers. Biological risk assessments have concluded that there is the potential for further outbreaks linked to uncooked cabbage, due to contamination at many stages of the growing, harvesting and packaging processes. Print with name - Print without name. , Fungal diseases include wirestem, which causes weak or dying transplants; Fusarium yellows, which result in stunted and twisted plants with yellow leaves; and blackleg (see Leptosphaeria maculans), which leads to sunken areas on stems and gray-brown spotted leaves.  In India, the diamondback moth has caused losses up to 90 percent in crops that were not treated with insecticide. The scientific name of Red Cabbage is the botanical name or formal name. Leaf types are generally divided between crinkled-leaf, loose-head savoys and smooth-leaf firm-head cabbages, while the color spectrum includes white and a range of greens and purples.  The ancient Greeks had some varieties of cabbage, as mentioned by Theophrastus, although whether they were more closely related to today's cabbage or to one of the other Brassica crops is unknown. Cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.  Ptolemaic Egyptians knew the cole crops as gramb, under the influence of Greek krambe, which had been a familiar plant to the Macedonian antecedents of the Ptolemies. For other uses, see, Leafy vegetable in the flowering plant family Brassicaceae, A whole white cabbage and a cross section. Symptoms & Life Cycle.  Many European and Asiatic names for cabbage are derived from the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap, meaning "head". Scientific Name: Brassica oleracea var. Brassica oleracea is native to coastal southern and western Europe. These receptors influence release of hormones involved in appetite regulation, such as peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1, and therefore may influence caloric intake and the development of obesity. It is recorded from Australia, New Zealand, and the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Rupr.’ was suitable as the scientific name for Chinese cabbage, and we classified B. rapa var.  Cooked cabbage is often criticized for its pungent, unpleasant odor and taste. The cultivars of B. oleracea are grouped by developmental form into seven major cultivar groups, of which the Acephala ("non-heading") group remains most like the natural wild cabbage in appearance: In places such as the Channel Islands and Canary Islands, where the frost is minimal and plants are thus freed from seasonality, some cultivars, known as Jersey cabbages, can grow up to 3 metres (9.8 ft) tall. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. The latter toxin has been traced to pre-made, packaged coleslaw mixes, while the spores were found on whole cabbages that were otherwise acceptable in appearance. B. oleracea has become established as an important human food crop plant, used because of its large food reserves, which are stored over the winter in its leaves. The seeds, like any other cabbage, can be used for sprouting. In North America, diamondback moth is now recorded everywhere that cabbage is grown. This in turn is a variant of the Old French caboce. Those used for processing, especially sauerkraut, are larger and have a lower percentage of water.  Cabbage is also a moderate source (10–19% DV) of vitamin B6 and folate, with no other nutrients having significant content per 100-gram serving (table). At the end of Antiquity cabbage is mentioned in De observatione ciborum ("On the Observance of Foods") of Anthimus, a Greek doctor at the court of Theodoric the Great, and cabbage appears among vegetables directed to be cultivated in the Capitulare de villis, composed c. 771-800 that guided the governance of the royal estates of Charlemagne.  Flowering induced by periods of low temperatures (a process called vernalization) only occurs if the plant is past the juvenile period. The Chinese cabbage later became the staple vegetable of Korea. sabauda). Basic research on cabbage phytochemicals is ongoing to discern if certain cabbage compounds may affect health or have potential for anti-disease effects, such as sulforaphane and other glucosinolates. capitata.  Heads average between 0.5 and 4 kg (1 and 8 lb), with fast-growing, earlier-maturing varieties producing smaller heads. Through artificial selection for various phenotype traits, the emergence of variations of the plant with drastic differences in looks took only a few thousand years. sabauda or var. , This article is about the vegetable. It is frequently eaten, either cooked or as sauerkraut, as a side dish or as an ingredient in such dishes as bigos (cabbage, sauerkraut, meat, and wild mushrooms, among other ingredients) gołąbki (stuffed cabbage) and pierogi (filled dumplings). , "Cabbage" was originally used to refer to multiple forms of B. oleracea, including those with loose or non-existent heads. The fruit is a silique that opens at maturity through dehiscence to reveal brown or black seeds that are small and round in shape. These include the heaviest cabbage, at 57.61 kilograms (127.0 lb), heaviest red cabbage, at 19.05 kilograms (42.0 lb), longest cabbage roll, at 15.37 m (50 ft 5 in), and the largest cabbage dish, at 925.4 kilograms (2,040 lb). , Jacques Cartier first brought cabbage to the Americas in 1541–42, and it was probably planted by the early English colonists, despite the lack of written evidence of its existence there until the mid-17th century.  Cabbage continued to figure in the materia medica of antiquity as well as at table: in the first century AD Dioscorides mentions two kinds of coleworts with medical uses, the cultivated and the wild, and his opinions continued to be paraphrased in herbals right through the 17th century. However, it is highly dispersiv… In short, Chinese cabbage … Other Brassica species, such as B. rapa, B. juncea, B. nigra, B. napus and Raphanus sativus, do not readily cross-pollinate.. Brassica rapa recently replaced B. campestris as the scientific name, as this species is not botanically different from the turnip. Family Name: Sterculiaceae. In temperate and sub-tropical regions, and also in the tropics at higher elevations. A brief historical sketch is in Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat. Introduction. However, the pekinensis subspecies generally refers to Chinese cabbage with elongated apple, Chihli type or Napa type, which can be found in our grocery stores. , Many cabbage varieties—including some still commonly grown—were introduced in Germany, France, and the Low Countries. Brassera oleracea is the taxonomical name for head cabbage, and it is further classified as the cultivar group Capitata. Brassica oleracea (Capitata Group), commonly known as cabbage, and Brassica oleracea (Acephala Group), commonly known as kale, are cool weather vegetables that are grown for harvest of their edible leaves. Vegetable Scientific Name / Botanical Name / Species Genus Family Common …  Both hand and mechanical harvesting are used, with hand-harvesting generally used for cabbages destined for market sales. Napa cabbage doesn't look like head cabbages; it has long, light green leaves that flower off of thick, white stalks. Because of the wide range of crops developed from the wild B. oleracea, multiple broadly contemporaneous domestications of cabbage may have occurred throughout Europe. A smooth, widely spreading vine, with the stems trailing on mud or floating on water. Vernalization allows the plant to grow to an adequate size before flowering.  The Pompeii cabbage was also mentioned by Columella in De Re Rustica. , In 2018, world production of cabbages (combined with other brassicas) was 69.4 million tonnes, led by China with 48% of the world total (table). Wild B. oleracea is a tall biennial plant that forms a stout rosette of large leaves in the first year.  Temperatures between 4 and 24 °C (39 and 75 °F) prompt the best growth, and extended periods of higher or lower temperatures may result in premature bolting (flowering). The Greeks and Romans claimed medicinal usages for their cabbage varieties that included relief from gout, headaches and the symptoms of poisonous mushroom ingestion.  Seedlings typically emerge in about 4–6 days from seeds planted 13 mm (1⁄2 in) deep at a soil temperature between 20 and 30 °C (68 and 86 °F). Brassica oleracea is a plant species that includes many common foods as cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, Savoy cabbage, kohlrabi, and gai lan. In commercial-scale operations, hand-harvested cabbages are trimmed, sorted, and packed directly in the field to increase efficiency. The botanical name for cabbage is Brassica oleracea capitata. In pepper spot, tiny black spots occur on the areas between the veins, which can increase during storage. Other medicinal uses recorded in European folk medicine include treatments for rheumatism, sore throat, hoarseness, colic, and melancholy. Raw cabbage is 92% water, 6% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and contains negligible fat (table). Thus, bitter taste perception may affect dietary behaviors by influencing both taste preferences and metabolic hormonal regulation. This taste aversion may apply to vegetables in general. , Pests include root-knot nematodes and cabbage maggots, which produce stunted and wilted plants with yellow leaves; aphids, which induce stunted plants with curled and yellow leaves; harlequin cabbage bugs, which cause white and yellow leaves; thrips, which lead to leaves with white-bronze spots; striped flea beetles, which riddle leaves with small holes; and caterpillars, which leave behind large, ragged holes in leaves. Brassica was considered by some Romans a table luxury, although Lucullus considered it unfit for the senatorial table. Ornamental plants were developed for ornamental use without regard to taste.  In Poland, cabbage is one of the main food crops, and it features prominently in Polish cuisine. Several other cruciferous vegetables (sometimes known as cole crops) are cultivars of B. oleracea, including broccoli, collard greens, brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and sprouting broccoli.  A possible wild ancestor of cabbage, Brassica oleracea, originally found in Britain and continental Europe, is tolerant of salt but not encroachment by other plants and consequently inhabits rocky cliffs in cool damp coastal habitats, retaining water and nutrients in its slightly thickened, turgid leaves.  The antipathy towards the vine made it seem that eating cabbage would enable one to avoid drunkenness. It became a favorite vegetable of Australians by the 1830s and was frequently seen at the Sydney Markets. , Although cabbage has an extensive history, it is difficult to trace its exact origins owing to the many varieties of leafy greens classified as "brassicas". Links. Downy mildew, a parasitic disease caused by the oomycete Peronospora parasitica, produces pale leaves with white, brownish or olive mildew on the lower leaf surfaces; this is often confused with the fungal disease powdery mildew.  Savoy cabbages are usually used in salads, while smooth-leaf types are utilized for both market sales and processing. Cash and tobacco have both been described by the slang "cabbage", while "cabbage-head" means a fool or stupid person and "cabbaged" means to be exhausted or, vulgarly, in a vegetative state. Plants perform best when grown in well-drained soil in a location that receives full sun. Cabbage centre grub, cabbage webworm. , With the advent of agriculture and the domestication of wild crop plants, the people of the northern Mediterranean began cultivating wild cabbage. ... Members of the brassica family, i.e., cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage and radish, but also amaranth and eggplant. The main axis, short and thick.  The more traditionalist Cato the Elder, espousing a simple Republican life, ate his cabbage cooked or raw and dressed with vinegar; he said it surpassed all other vegetables, and approvingly distinguished three varieties; he also gave directions for its medicinal use, which extended to the cabbage-eater's urine, in which infants might be rinsed. oleracea), and belongs to the "cole crops" or brassicas, meaning it is closely related to broccoli and cauliflower (var. Cabbage has anti-inflammatory properties. Plants have root systems that are fibrous and shallow.  Cabbage is a source of indole-3-carbinol, a chemical under basic research for its possible properties. It is rich in essential nutrients including vitamin C. It has been bred into a wide range of cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, collards, and kale, some of which are hardly recognizable as being members of the same genus, let alone species. Scientific name: Sabal Palmetto Also known as: Cabbage palm, cabbage palmetto, Carolina palmetto Size: Averages about 45 feet tall, but can grow taller in the wild Lifespan: Dating Sabal palms is more difficult than other species because they do not have traditional growth rings.  Ancient Egyptians ate cooked cabbage at the beginning of meals to reduce the intoxicating effects of wine.  Pickling is one of the most popular ways of preserving cabbage, creating dishes such as sauerkraut and kimchi, although kimchi is more often made from Chinese cabbage (B.